Interview of Frank Neuman conducted by Joseph Bobrow April 22, 1996 via the USC Shoah Foundation
Where were you born? Tell me about your mother and father.
I was born in Lwow, Poland. (Also known as Lemberg.) My father’s name was Julius Hendrick Neuman. He was an attorney. He was a very jolly type of a person. He was a law partner of the only Jewish congressman in Poland. And being Jewish, and being co—president of state bar association was quite a great honor. Both of my parents were strict. I had to adhere to certain house rules and adhere to a time table to a certain minute. I had a nanny until I was seven years old. My mother was Helena. She was very strict too. A memory of my mom that relates to my Holocaust story… On June 15, 1941, when the Germans drove in to Lwow. We stood in our apartment watch them walk in. MY mother was crying, and I said to her, “why do you cry?” I was at that time 19 years old, and probably didn’t understand exactly what was going on. She said, “I'm not worried about me, I am worried about you.” And I said, “Don’t worry about me. I will survive Hitler.”
The town of Lwow was liberated by Russians either on July 10 or 11, and I was evacuated on the last train from Lwow on July 2. Had I stayed there ten days longer, I would have saved myself a lot of time in a concentration camp between January 1944 and May 1945.
I had no brothers and no sisters.
What type of school did you go to?
I attended all public schools in our home town. I remember doing homework. I was a straight A student all the way until I graduated high school, except one year because I had a B in citizenship because one day I was messing around with a bean shooter, and I hit the teacher on the neck. If it wasn’t the fact that my father was an alumni of the same high school, I probably would have been expelled. But being as it may, they gave me a B. But I was still considered a straight A student because citizenship did not count. And I played violin at every assembly. And I was considered a pet of the principal. My favorite subjects were Latin and French.
Did you belong to a synagogue?
My father belonged to a synagogue. We had a great temple with an organ, and the women sat separate. I had a Bar Mitzvah. I read Hebrew. I did what I had to do. All Jewish holidays were favorite holidays because we could skip school. But on a more serious note, probably Passover was my favorite because of the Seder and the family get together and because of the food and the novelties of the matzah instead of the bread. I remember asking the four questions in Hebrew.
What was the Jewish Community like?
The Jewish community in Lwow was different in my opinion than in any major cities in Poland. It was very diversified, having close to 100,000. You had orthodox Jews living in certain areas of town. You had a lot of middle class Jews who were merchants, but you also had a great number of doctors, lawyers, architects, engineers. In a pre-war Poland in the 1930s, it was a problem getting into any university. They had what is called academic quota. It was very hard to get in.
A friend of my cousin was killed in the pharmacy school, which was on the same campus as the engineering school. There were a group of students who belonged to a certain organization, and they simply killed them.
Were Jewish students forced to sit in certain seats?
I don’t remember that Jewish students had to sit in separate seats prior to WWII.
Were your friends all Jewish?
My friends were all mixed friends—Jewish and non-Jewish. I even attended Catholic Church services on Good Friday because we didn’t have school, and my friends were there. But they never accompanied me to synagogue.
What did it feel like to be Jewish?
You always felt you were different. You were always the minority. There were always remarks passed, graffiti, newspapers… The Jews were always pointed out with the fingers whether you were five years old, ten years old, or eighty years old. The bigotry and prejudice existed then as I understand still exists. Sometimes I was literally physically kicked by another kid saying, “oh you Jew.” You did not react to it if you didn’t want to get beaten more. You just went on. You became immune to it. It was part of the environment that you lived in.
What were your goals for the future?
I was groomed to attend the medical school in France. And that is why I majored in French and went to a special school. My mother had tremendous wisdom and also wanted me to study music, in my case violin. She said if you ever have to leave this country, music is international. You don’t have to know the language. You just have to know the notes. I had to practice every day a minimum of one hour. Today I am most grateful that I did it because I love the symphony and music.
What changes did you observe after Hitler’s rise to Power in Germany?
Hitler’s rise to power coincidentally occurred on my birthday. You could see differences in attitudes in Jews as well as non-Jews. The non-Jews felt that they were always right by discriminating against the Jews. The Jews had more fear than they ever had before. There were outbursts of anti-Semitism in Parliament. There was definitely a different attitude. On the other hand, nobody expected that it could go as far as it did. There were many people that could have escaped to foreign countries. But nobody wanted to leave the country and their belongings.
It was happening in 1941 and 1942, but we still didn’t think it would go to the extreme that it did. Work camps yes. Concentration camps, perhaps yes. But gassing and total annihilation. No. There were a few smart people who could escape.
Strangely enough my father and I had tickets for the passage from Poland to the United States for the world’s fair in 1939. They were for September 3. And the Germans invaded Poland on September 1. And that was our trip. Had the dates been different. My father might have lived considerably longer, and I might have saved myself from the camps.
What were the first changes that affected you?
Being in Eastern Poland, the first two years of Hitler’s occupation, my part of the country was occupied by the Russians. So we didn’t feel too much of his power except from what we read in the paper and seeing the Jewish refugees fleeing from Western Poland.
Since 1941, that infamous June 25 when they came to our town, life began to change on a daily basis. First, they start taking your possessions. Then they start displacing you. Then making you wear the white arm band with the Star of David. Then taking you to work. Then rounding you up while you were working or on the way to work and putting you on trucks and taking you to the unknown. Creating a Jewish ghetto. Eventually liquidating the ghetto.
It is very easy to say in a few seconds, but that was a span of a few years of living minute to minute with a constant fear. Am I going to be here tomorrow? You lived now. You did not live later.
Do you remember German Troops coming to your house and taking things from you?
I remember German troops, and we were blessed by having Ukraine troops, and the dirty work was done by mostly Ukraine troops. Personally, we had no one come into my home and take our furniture and belongings, but we were displaced from where we lived to the ghetto into very small quarters.
Do you remember the day you were told to move?
Yes. There was announcement that you have so many hours that you have to leave from where you live and go to a certain area and find yourself lodging. Was it simple, no. But to them, it was simple.
Was your father still working at this time?
No. He couldn’t practice law anymore than I could still study medicine.
How did you get food?
People supported themselves through the black market. You could support yourself if you had the means. There were also very small rations that were negligible to what you needed.
Do you remember being hungry?
I remember being hungry on numerous occasions. Probably not as much in the ghetto as in concentration camps. In ghetto, thanks to the fact that my parents had means, we could always get enough to sustain ourselves through the black market. There were always Christians peddling from outside the fence exchanging goods for food.
Do you remember deciding what to take with you?
No. But you couldn’t take much more than one suitcase of personal belongings? Everybody thought it would be temporary. Everybody was hoping and praying that the Nazis would get conquered real quick. You live with the hope that tomorrow will be different. And there was no resistance in my part of Poland. There were always talks of resistance and there were sporadic instances when people did leave the ghetto and tried to flee, but there was no organized resistance.
So you went with your parents and your family?
No, not with my parents. At that time, I was already married. During the occupation, people my age, I was already 20, got married. There was nothing to lose. You wanted someone, you didn’t know if you would be alive later. So I got married. I lived with my wife, her mother and father and cousin. There were seven of us.
My parents moved into an apartment together close by in the ghetto.
Were there attempts to climb over the fence?
There were fences all around it with only one gate. I would say the fence would have been between nine and ten feet high with a barbed wire. Yes. There were attempts. The perimeter was patrolled with guards and dogs. Everybody thought about escaping, but not everybody had the courage.
What were the sanitary conditions like?
Sanitary conditions were dismal. Food, as mentioned, was available. Many people shared. Many people starved to death. There were no medications, no doctors.
Did you have a job in the ghetto?
I worked as a medical assistant to the doctor, which was very paradoxical because even if we had a diagnosis, we had no medication. We only had hot water and Vaseline. And besides being a medical assistant, I played the violin in the ghetto orchestra. We played at the gate to prove to the world that everything was ok inside. You did it because you had to do it, and if you didn’t do it, your chances of survival were less. Everything you did was done to increase survival.
How were the spirits of the people in the ghetto? How did you keep going?
The spirits vary between people. The general consensus was that we have to survive. If you survive it will come to an end someday. Again, nobody expected the end of the crematoria. People expected that Germany would lose the war very quickly, and we are going to survive. That is why you lived from day to day.
What determined who would live and who would die?
In some instances luck. In some instances age. In some instances being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Let me give you an example. During the roundup of the ghetto. One of the Ukrainian policeman who were helping rounded up about five of us men in one particular apartment. They took us out on the street. They lined us up against the wall, faced toward the wall. And I remember my emotions at that time. I was shaken inside. And I hear shots. I was the first one on the left. They shot the other four guys and they told me to bury the other corpses. So right time at the right place and wrong time at the wrong place. I had to bury them in practically in the same ground. People that I knew.
Were there many of these episodes?
Not exactly like mine, but many of that nature.
Were there other punishments or mistreatment episodes?
One day in the ghetto, the SS came in for some reason, and they took the entire Jewish Council (seven men and they were the elders). They were liaisons between the Jews in the ghetto and the German authorities. And they hung them on the main street above the ghetto. They did this because they were Jewish. That was the beginning of the end of the ghetto, I presume.
What job did your wife have in the ghetto?
My wife was a day maid to one of the lieutenants to one of the German Police. Every day she brought food—scraps, whatever was leftover. And that helped too. And she had that assignment as long as we were in that town, from 1941 until we escaped in 1943. She was well treated.
How were religious holidays observed in the ghetto?
I don’t know. I never saw anything. I never went to anything. I am sure that they were. And if they were, they were performed in a minion in someone’s little room. There were no synagogues in the ghetto.
How long were you in the ghetto?
I was in that ghetto until July 1944. I have been in a ghetto twice. I was in a camp twice. The first time I was in a ghetto was everybody was hurled into the ghetto. And I stayed here until that infamous day of June 12, 1942, which was about three weeks after I got married. And I stayed in a camp, Janowska, until spring 1943. At which time, one day when they marched us to the public baths in town, not in the camp, I escaped through the side door and went back to the ghetto. I stayed in the ghetto until June 2, 1943 when they liquidated the ghetto, at which time my wife and I escaped through the sewers from the ghetto paradoxically in the manhole we got out of was right in front of the great Jewish temple. And we went out to the field sin the country, and we lived in the wheat fields for about 11 days. I don't’ remember how we got food, but we must have taken enough to sustain ourselves. And one of the Poles found us. He was generous enough, and he took us into his house that was out in the country. We stayed there from June 1943 until approximately June 1944. I was living in the stable with the cows. I was sleeping in the attic. These people are really great-they put their lives on the line for us. They received great remuneration for it. They were paid consistently. My former wife used to travel in disguise to the hometown to a former friend of my step father who had most of my parents wealth. And he was eking it out every time we needed it. And we were paying this Polish family for the risks that they have taken. Unfortunately, even that didn’t work out. Because on one of the trips in 1944, at which time I had already been working on the German railroad, she went town, and somebody recognized her. It was a Polish secret polish in the service of Germany. And they arrested her. And because I worked on the railroad, she had a document that I was her husband, and they came to the work, and they arrested me.
While I was hiding with that Polish family, around spring of 1944, it became too hot for them, and they were very scared. And it was time to go. He got us the papers as Christians through the Priest. And we moved to that little county town, and I was looking for a job and the German railroad officials hired me. I was a signal guard. And my former wife worked as a maid for the station’s director, who was a German. I was always convinced he knew we were Jewish. He treated us like he didn’t know who we were. And that’s where the German identifier came to arrest me when my wife got recognized. That was somewhere around June mid 1944. My former wife was taken one way, I was taken back to Janowska. All things being equal, I really don’t know how I can be here today. Because a normal punishment for everybody that we knew who got recaptured and brought back to the camp—there was one punishment, hanging, and hanging upside down. I had seen hundreds of them. I got back to the camp, nobody touched me. And they remembered me by name. Specifically one of the guards, who was the senior guard and in charge of the guards. He remembered my name, and he treated me wonderfully well. There were occasions he gave me a cigarette.
I got back to that camp, and nobody touched me. Very shortly thereafter, in a matter of days, was July 2, and a total evacuation. The railroad station was adjacent to the camp. They put us in the cattle cars, and they transported us west to a town, Jeshev. There they rounded up a bunch of wagons and took us further west. And eventually we ended up in Krakow. While we were in transit, they fed us extremely well. They gave us cigarettes every night. They gave us vodka rations every night. I think they wanted to keep us alive on the way to Krakow and not let the coming troops discover what they were doing. So we got there sometime in July. And there I stayed until October.
My commando consisted of the group that came from the Janowska camp. We were all put in what was called Straf Commando (meaning punitive commando). We had to dig up the bodies of the people who were shot and buried in the mass graves. We undid the graves, pulled out the skulls, we had to pull all the gold teeth and the crowns out, and put them in a big container. And then take the rest of the bodies and put them in one big heap behind the kitchen, and that was burning day and night. Now there was a reward for working in that commando. We got an extra bowl of soup at the end of the day.
And that eventually came to an end. We were transported to Gross-Rosen. And Gross-Rosen was a crematorium camp. And there was probably one of the most horrifying experience when we were in transit there. First, we had to sit in maybe one room and nest ourselves like sardines, naked, and they took us on an October night outside, and they led us to the showers. Now we never knew whether we were going to zyklon b shower or steam shower. We were sure it was the end. That was probably one of the most horrifying experiences. Fortunately, I went to the regular showers, and we were eventually transported to a different camp—the Reichenbach. It was a better camp. There were no executions there. Yes, you walked seven miles to work, and if you fell down, they finish you off. But there were no selections, no mass graves, no shootings. Food was pretty much the same as the other camps. Barracks were cold, very cold. But come May 1, 1945, I don’t remember how, but we knew that this was the beginning of the end for Germany. I think there was one of the work details who brought the news. Whatever it was, they became very meek and very tolerant overnight—the guards and German officers. By the 7th of May, we could see them all packing and sneaking out of the camp. We knew it was over. And on the morning on the 9th of May, the Russians walked into the camp and liberated us.
What site do you remember seeing the Russians coming toward the camp?
I remember a couple of officers coming on a jeep, and they got off the little car and said in Russian “You are free.” Many understood Russian. And everybody started to cheer and sing Hatikvah. And that was the beginning of the freedom. I remember singing. That was the only time I ever remember people singing in the camps.
Was there ever romance in the camps?
No. There was total separation. The women and men lived on separate areas of the camp. There were no children in the camp. Occasionally, some survived because they looked older, but there were rare.
What were the camps like?
The plan of the camps was pretty much the same in most of them. You had watchtowers. You had an entry gate, with a guard house and usually a few guards posted at the entry gate. There was a large area where there was general assembly every morning and evening and counted and gave you orders. The barracks were either on the perimeter or in rows around the perimeter. The officers lived outside of the barbed wire fence area. The kitchen was within barbed wire area. There was an infirmary with some –I don’t recall—very few medications. In the last camp I was in, I had an ear infection in both ears. It made me not only deaf in both ears for six weeks. But it felt like I had motors in my ears.
How many people lived in the barracks?
Depends on the camp, depends on the barracks. I don’t recall the exact number, but some of the barracks were one story. Some were two story. There was no beauty to the design. Gruesome gray looking. There was no heat. I should say there were stoves, but we had to bring our own burning material if we wanted to get warm. It was impossible to warm up the block barracks.
It was a survival of the fittest with a little bit of luck. No question that luck did play a role.
Did you witness the punishment of any inmates?
I witnessed punishments of inmates in the Janowska, almost virtually every single day. I did not witness much in Parshov, and there was not very much in Reichenbach. But it was a daily ritual for the Germans at Janowska. Whether they made them kneel and they shot them in the back of the head, or they hung them by the neck, or they hung them upside down, or the camp commander went on his balcony and shot them as they were just walking—it didn’t matter. You saw it every single day. They were trying to dehumanize us, with bullets.
Did they succeed?
I think to a degree they did. People became animals.
What happened to your parents at that time?
They were both dead at that time. My father was rounded up by the Germans during the liquidation of the ghetto on June 2, 1943, and he with several other men were herded into a three-story building in the ghetto, and they poured gasoline on the bottom level of the building and started a fire. And the building was surrounded by machine guns. And those who didn’t burn to death were shot to death. That’s how my father died.
My mother was selected for deportation or actually was most likely taken for mass execution. Knowing that, she had cyanide with her, and knowing that, she took her own life in that same year, March 1943.
My mother and father were divorced at that point.
How did you find out your parent’s fate?
My mother’s fate was told to me by an eyewitness. My father’s fate was told to me by another eyewitness.
And strangely, I escaped from the ghetto just a few hundred feet from where they were being herded.
Let’s talk about your escape. Was it something you planned?
It was very spontaneous. There was a series of one-story buildings alongside a bank of an underground river. It was actually more of a wash. One person unknown to me who lived in one of those buildings had dug out a passage from the house into the underground where the river was flowing. And somebody knew about it and maybe fifty or sixty people ran there and went underground. There was a path that you could walk on. And that river was not underground through the entire city, so eventually, there was an exit. Some people went to the exit. As I found out later, the Germans and the Ukrainians were waiting at the exit. We met underground a man who said to my former wife, “come on, I’ll get you out of here.” We went through some passages underground, pushed us up through the manhole, lifted the lid, and there we were. As I said before, right by the Jewish great temple. This temple was still standing, but the ghetto was burning. We split up—he went his way, and we went our way. And that’s how we survived.
The Polish couple, the farmers where you were hiding, were they ever caught that you know of?
The last I know of him, is he was rounded up for the forced labor in Germany because while I worked in the railroad station, I saw him with a group of Poles being put on a railroad car being sent to Germany to work.
You mentioned that your family was friendly with Simon Wiesenthal. What contact did you have with him?
I don’t know what contact we had during the war, but before the war, they were acquaintances and social events. But he does remember who my parents were because when he was in town, at an event, I passed a note to him and after the event at Phoenix College, we came down for the reception, and I walked up to him and he took me aside and we talked for half an hour.
Did the Jewish police play any active role in the ghetto?
Yes. Their basic role was to help the Germans as well as help the Jews in a sense. I have seen both good and bad deeds by them. The good deeds are when they helped people hide or forewarn them that someone was on the way to take them. The bad deeds are when the Germans rounded up the Jews, they were pushing them and helping them load the people on the trucks. It was again a matter of taking a job in order to survive. They helped in an already existing situation. They carry out the orders they were told. If they didn’t do it, someone else would have done it. They did it for selfish reasons—to prolong their lives. But of course, I understand that it was different in other towns. I am only speaking of my hometown.
Did you get severely sick in any of these camps?
Yes. In Janowska, we had an epidemic of the typhus fever. Fortunately, my mother through connections with certain party that was holding our valuables who was of Polish nobility and who personally knew the inventor of the anti-typhus vaccine, who was incidentally my biology professor at medical school, which did nothing about getting the vaccine, but through my mother’s efforts, we got the vaccine. It was available, but only for the German army. But it was available for the certain price. So I survived the typhus fever. It was true that also through my connections, I got some food smuggled to me. I even got red wine smuggled to me, which was important for the typhus fever to drink a lot of wine.
Tell me about the liberation and what happened after that.
After the liberation, I stayed very shortly in Reichenbach, went to Krakow to visit one person that I knew was there, and through that person, I secured false documents as a Polish intelligence officer. And with those documents, in mid-summer, I escaped from Poland via Czechoslovakia to Austria. I found out there was a displaced persons camp in Wells, Austria, and that’s where I went, and I immediately got employed by the UN relief as a medical assistant. And that camp was resolved so we were transported to a Swiss resort, and they put us up in hotels. It was beautiful. Three meals a day in a restaurant. And I still worked as a medical assistant. I was practicing medicine without a license. But a funny thing happened. My former wife was liberated in Bergen-Belsen. Somebody from Poland told her in conversation that they saw me in Krakow, so she went to Krakow. And it wasn’t easy because you had to cross the border illegally. But she met a friend of mine, the same one who got me the false papers.
Keep in mind, we survivors were a small community. Everybody helped everybody.
She thought that I was alive, I escaped the country. I could be anywhere for all she knows. She thinks I am in Austria, so she got on a train and at that time, the trains ran only by day. My friend gave her a small picture of mine, and while she was on the train, there was another survivor traveling. Well the train stopped, and she was asked what she was going to do. The other woman told her that she lived here, why don't you come and stay with me tonight, then you can continue traveling. While, they were discussing, my former wife said she was looking for her husband. She told the lady my name. The lady said, I can tell you exactly where he is, he is a medical assistant at a hotel, and she found me. And when she found me, I went with her to Bergen-Belsen to the displaced persons camp in the barracks, where we lived until 1949. I continued with the UN as a medical assistant from July 31, 1947, I was absorbed by the CCG, control commission of Germany, and I got promoted to an employment officer for the camp zone. I stayed as an employment officer and an administrative assistant until I left the country in 1949.
Then they transported me to America. And I didn’t want to stay in New York, I wanted to go back to Germany. But they shipped me to Minnesota instead, and it turned out to be a great move.
When did you come to AZ?
Do you have children? Do you have any grandchildren?
I have three children. I have two grandchildren.
What are you currently doing?
I am currently a practicing realtor. I have been a men’s clothing retailer for thirty five years, and the day came when I had enough. And I quite, and I thought I was going to retire, and I did for six months. But then I wanted to go into reality because it’s not as time demanding and you can name your own hours. And I have been very happy doing what I am doing. And my hard work has brought me success.
What do you do in your free time for fun?
I like to read a lot. I am a news addict. I like to know the news. I think that goes back to my olden days when I was in the ghetto or concentration camp, and we always wanted the news. I think I am still hunting for news.
We like to travel, and we do travel. We dine. We go to plays. And life goes on.
Why do you think you survived?
My ad hoc answer would be that it was my mother’s prayers. And I know many mothers prayed for their children, yet I think there is something to it. I do know that luck plays a role. I do know that being in the wrong place at the wrong time is worse being at the right place at the right time. Because I’ve been in both, and I know the difference. And I think stamina had a lot to do with it. There are many factors—psychological, physical, they can all be put together, and with a little bit of luck, it can work. And that’s how it worked for me.
When I was liberated I weighed 76 pounds, and I was twenty three years old. I had water running through my skin instead of blood. The body was deteriorated. I still have scars. The fact that I had that ear infection, today I have to wear a hearing aid.
And even being half deaf, I am glad to be alive.
Do you have dreams about the Holocaust experience?
I do. Not too often. Couple, three four times a year. There is usually something that triggers it. Either an article, or a movie, something usually triggers it off. It does not just happen. But yes, I have dreams. Some are very real. Some are not that real. But they are dreams that you revive those days one way or another. And they are usually the tragic moments you dream about. They are not the pleasant days like when you got liberated. Those are the days when you were beaten.
Where you ever able to put it behind you and start living again?
It did. I think I was extremely fortunate by being able to put all of this behind me, and real quick. Today is what counts. You cannot live in the past. You must look into the future. Yes, the past can teach you certain things, and the past gives you experience, but you cannot dwell on bad misfortunes of the past and go into the future. So when I lived in the displaced persons camp between 1945 and 1949, even then, I found that I am outgrowing that hatred and pain and the events that were in my past. Although the environment of being with the same people, whether directly or indirectly in the same camp, you couldn’t totally forget. But after I came to this country, I think when I crossed that Atlantic. I left all of these events in Europe. I have no mental problems when my wife and I travel to Europe. I even believe the new generation of Germans have to a degree learned from the past, and they are much better than their ancestors were. They have learned about peace and co-existence.
Do you think it could ever happen again?
My answer is a definite yes. It can happen and it will happen. History repeats itself, as we all say. We had the crusader. We had the inquisition. We had the Holocaust. Way back we had the Romans, burned the temple. It will happen again. Whether it will be another three or four hundred years, I don't’ know. This is the atomic age. Things are happening faster. I am not a prophet, but my feeling is yes, it will happen.
How has the experience going through the Holocaust affected how you raised your children?
I do not think that surviving Holocaust had an affect on me raising my children. I think that my children on their own by being children of survivors have developed a certain feeling of belonging. Not a feeling of belonging to a great extent, but at least they know their ethnic identity. No, they don’t go to synagogue every Friday night, but they know they are Jews.
Do you have any advice or wisdom to pass on to future generations?
The advice I would give to all the generations and all of the peoples and nations is we all should practice our religions. We all should respect each other, and we should not fight. Because as my mother-in-law used to say, that you if look at the history, way back, most of the wars were fought because of the religion. Those were the roots of most of the wars. And if people would respect each other’s faith, color, then the world would be much, much better.
Anything else to add?
There isn’t much I can add to what I have said. All kids of stories and episodes, they not always come to our minds at the right time, but I think what I have said gives the future generations an overall view, a montage of what happened during the war years to a person by the name of Frank Neuman and others like me.
Neuman, Frank. Interview 14328. Survivors of the Shoah. USC Shoah Foundation. 1996. Dvd. Interview of Frank Neuman (1996) is from the archive of the USC Shoah Foundation. For more information: http://sfi.usc.edu/
© USC Shoah Foundation
© USC Shoah Foundation